Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Political Philosophy and Individualism Essay
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes Ã¢â¬Å"the moral worth of the individualÃ¢â¬ . Individualists promote the exercise of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts Ã¢â¬Å"with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation. Ã¢â¬ Individualism thus involves Ã¢â¬Å"the right of the individual to freedom and self-realizationÃ¢â¬ . An individualist enters into society to further his or her own interests, or at least demands the right to serve his or her own interests, without taking the interests of society into consideration. The individualist does not lend credence to any philosophy that requires the sacrifice of the self-interest of the individual for any higher social causes. Jean-Jacques Rousseau would argue, however, that his concept of Ã¢â¬Å"general willÃ¢â¬ in the Ã¢â¬Å"social contractÃ¢â¬ is not the simple collection of individual wills and precisely furthers the interests of the individual (the constraint of law itself would be beneficial for the individual, as the lack of respect for the law necessarily entails, in RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, a form of ignorance and submission to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s passions instead of the preferred autonomy of reason). Individualists are chiefly concerned with protecting individual autonomy against obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state or religious morality). (Encyclopedia Britannica) Individualism, political and social philosophy that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualism once exhibited interesting national variations, but its various meanings have since largely merged. Following the upheaval of the French Revolution, individualisme was used pejoratively in Franceto signify the sources of social dissolution and anarchy and the elevation of individual interests above those of the collective. The termÃ¢â¬â¢s negative connotation was employed by French reactionaries, nationalists, conservatives, liberals, and socialists alike, despite their different views of a feasible and desirable social order. In Germany, the ideas of individual uniqueness (Einzigkeit) and self-realizationÃ¢â¬âin sum, the Romantic notion of individualityÃ¢â¬âcontributed to the cult of individual genius and were later transformed into an organic theory of national community. According to this view, state and society are not artificial constructs erected on the basis of a social contract but instead unique and self-sufficient cultural wholes. In England, individualism encompassed religious nonconformity (i. e. , nonconformity with the Church of England) and economic liberalism in its various versions, including both laissez-faire and moderate state-interventionist approaches. In the United States, individualism became part of the core American ideology by the 19th century, incorporating the influences of New England Puritanism, Jeffersonianism, and the philosophy of natural rights. American individualism was universalist and idealist but acquired a harsher edge as it became infused with elements of social Darwinism (i.e. , the survival of the fittest). Ã¢â¬Å"Rugged individualismÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âextolled by Herbert Hoover during his presidential campaign in 1928Ã¢â¬âwas associated with traditional American values such as personal freedom,capitalism, and limited government. As James Bryce, British ambassador to the United States (1907Ã¢â¬â13), wrote in The American Commonwealth (1888), Ã¢â¬Å"Individualism, the love of enterprise, and the pride in personal freedom have been deemed by Americans not only their choicest, but [their] peculiar and exclusive possession. Ã¢â¬ The French aristocratic political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville (1805Ã¢â¬â59) described individualism in terms of a kind of moderate selfishness that disposed humans to be concerned only with their own small circle of family and friends. Observing the workings of the American democratic tradition for Democracy in America (1835Ã¢â¬â40), Tocqueville wrote that by leading Ã¢â¬Å"each citizen to isolate himself from his fellows and to draw apart with his family and friends,Ã¢â¬ individualism sapped the Ã¢â¬Å"virtues of public life,Ã¢â¬ for which civic virtue and association were a suitable remedy. For the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818Ã¢â¬â97), individualism signified the cult of privacy, which, combined with the growth of self-assertion, had given Ã¢â¬Å"impulse to the highest individual developmentÃ¢â¬ that flowered in the European Renaissance. The French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1858Ã¢â¬â1917) identified two types of individualism: the utilitarian egoism of the English sociologist and philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820Ã¢â¬â1903), who, according to. Durkheim, reduced society to Ã¢â¬Å"nothing more than a vast apparatus of production and exchange,Ã¢â¬ and the rationalism of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724Ã¢â¬â1804), the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712Ã¢â¬â1788), and the French RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789), which has as Ã¢â¬Å"its primary dogma the autonomy of reason and as its primary rite the doctrine of free enquiry. Ã¢â¬ The Austrian economist F. A. Hayek (1899Ã¢â¬â1992), who favoured market processes and was distrustful of state intervention, distinguished what he called Ã¢â¬Å"falseÃ¢â¬ from Ã¢â¬Å"trueÃ¢â¬ individualism. False individualism, which was represented mainly by French and other continental European writers, is characterized by Ã¢â¬Å"an exaggerated belief in the powers of individual reasonÃ¢â¬ and the scope of effective social planning and is Ã¢â¬Å"a source of modern socialismÃ¢â¬ ; in contrast, true individualism, whose adherents included John Locke (1632Ã¢â¬â1704), Bernard de Mandeville (1670Ã¢â¬â1733), David Hume (1711Ã¢â¬â76), Adam Ferguson (1723Ã¢â¬â1816), Adam Smith (1723Ã¢â¬â90), and Edmund Burke(1729Ã¢â¬â97), maintained that the Ã¢â¬Å"spontaneous collaboration of free men often creates things which are greater than their individual minds can ever fully comprehendÃ¢â¬ and accepted that individuals must submit Ã¢â¬Å"to the anonymous and seemingly irrational forces of society. Ã¢â¬ Other aspects of individualism pertain to a series of different questions about how to conceive the relation between collectivities and individuals. One such question focuses on how facts about the behaviour of groups, about social processes, and about large-scale historical events are to be explained. According to methodological individualism, a view advocated by Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper (1902Ã¢â¬â94), any explanation of such a fact ultimately must appeal to, or be stated in terms of, facts about individualsÃ¢â¬âabout their beliefs, desires, and actions. A closely related view, sometimes called ontological individualism, is the thesis that social or historical groups, processes, and events are nothing more than complexes of individuals and individual actions. Methodological individualism precludes explanations that appeal to social factors that cannot in turn be individualistically explained. Examples are DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s classic account of differential suicide rates in terms of degrees of social integration and the account of the incidence of protest movements in terms of the structure of political opportunities. Ontological individualism contrasts with various ways of seeing institutions and collectivities as Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âe. g. , the view of corporations or states as agents and the view of bureaucratic roles and rules or status groups as independent of individuals, both constraining and enabling individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour. Another question that arises in debates over individualism is how objects of worth or value (i. e. , goods) in moral and political life are to be conceived. Some theorists, known as atomists, argue that no such goods are intrinsically common or communal, maintaining instead that there are only individual goods that accrue to individuals. According to this perspective, morality and politics are merely the instruments through which each individual attempts to secure such goods for himself. One example of this view is the conception of political authority as ultimately derived from or justified by a hypothetical Ã¢â¬Å"contractÃ¢â¬ between individuals, as in the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (1588Ã¢â¬â1679). Another is the idea, typical in economics and in other social sciences influenced by economics, that most social institutions and relationships can best be understood by assuming that individual behaviour is motivated primarily by self-interest. Individualism with its endorsement of private enjoyments and control of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal environment and its neglect of public involvement and communal attachment, has long been lamented and criticized from both the right and the left and from both religious and secular perspectives. Especially notable critiques have been made by advocates of communitarianism, who tend to equate individualism with narcissism and selfishness. Likewise, thinkers in the tradition of Ã¢â¬Å"republicanÃ¢â¬ political thoughtÃ¢â¬âaccording to which power is best controlled by being dividedÃ¢â¬âare disturbed by their perception that individualism deprives the state of the support and active involvement of citizens, thereby impairing democratic institutions. Individualism also has been thought to distinguish modern Western societies from premodern and non-Western ones, such as traditional India and China, where, it is said, the community or the nation is valued above the individual and an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the political and economic life of his community is largely determined by his membership in a specific class or caste.