Saturday, May 23, 2020
The Amsterdam Articles August 5, 1944 Daily Edition ARRESTED! Michael Memis The Amsterdam Articles Yesterday, eight Jews in hiding were found and arrested by German and Dutch police. The people captured were Otto Frank, Hermann van Pels, Fritz Pfeffer, Peter van Pels, Edith Frank, Auguste van Pels, Margot Frank, and Anne Frank. The police were told of the location of the Jews by an anonymous person who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give his name. They had hid in Otto FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s office building in a secret room. It was soon learned that they had been in hiding for over two years. They were helped in hiding by Miep Gies, Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler, and Bep Voskuijl. Only Kleiman and Kugler have been arrested so far. The van Pels and Franks started hiding in July 1942 when Margot Frank was told she was going to be taken away. Fritz Pfeffer joined them 4 months later. They had hoped to hide until the war ended. It is surprising that they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t found out sooner. There were multiple break-ins into their house and multiple bombings in Netherlands which could have exposed their location. They were also listening to the radio at night and lit their stove at 7:30 on Sunday mornings so their neighbors may have been able to figure out they were living there. There was also a cleaning lady but she was hard of hearing. These 8 people are being taken into prison where they will probably be transported to a labor camp somewhere in GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s vast empire. Feature Stories: TheShow MoreRelatedFuture Vision Digital Services864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesINCORPORATION Executive summary: Future Vision Digital Services was a technology consulting and design firm responsible for providing a range of services including multi-platform user interface design and marketing, software engineering and technical program management, systems integration, data analysis and customer relationship management. By 2004 the company expanded its operations from Western Canada to open offices in New York, Los Angeles, Amsterdam, Singapore and Toronto. TheRead MoreThe Holocaust : A Great Impact On The World1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrank Biography). Anne was just four years old when her family emigrated to Amsterdam, Netherlands in 1933. The next year, Anne began attending a Montessori kindergarten in 1934 (The Story of Anne Frank). Anne and her sister made many friends in school and her father had established a successful company that produced a gelling agent used in jam. It was not long before Anne and her family began to feel right at home in Amsterdam (Anne Frank- World War II). AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Otto Frank, described AnneRead MoreHow Ttip Is The United States And The European Union Help Boost The Trade Flow Between The Countries1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreorganization CET 21 terminated the agreement between CET 21 and CNTS on Ã¢â¬Å"questionable grounds.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Case SummaryÃ¢â¬ 3) According to CME and its overarching boss, Mister Lauder, this termination violated the NED Ã¢â¬â CZ and USA Ã¢â¬â CZ BITs and issued a claim in Amsterdam, Stockholm and London against the Czech Republic. In both the Amsterdam and London tribunal CME was without much success, although the Amsterdam court ruled that both parties should exchange their shares, it was a significant loss for CME. ButRead More Anne Frank Remembered: Review Essay1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessource of background to the authors viewpoint is her own story. In order to further discuss her main points and views, a summary of her story must be given. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The book began with a brief history of the childhood of Miep Gies. She was born in Vienna, Austria in 1909, where she lived with her parents until the age eleven year. She was then sent to Amsterdam by a program in the aid of undernourished and sick children and was to be adopted by a Dutch family. She became used toRead MoreApple Inc. 2010 Case Study622 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesApple Inc. 2010 Case Study Case Summary: Steve Jobs and Steve Wazniak started Apple over 30 years ago. Over that time span, Steve jobs was fired from Apple and rehired. It was essentially Jobs that save apple with superb vision and creative innovations. The first innovation was like a fashion statement. The iMac was an innovation that put 2 products into one. The desktop was built into the screen. Then, Jobs tackled the world of portable music by inventing the iPod. He shortly followedRead MoreThe Effects Of Substance Abuse On Children1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdebt further underscored the instability of these childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s living circumstancesÃ¢â¬ (Bernard, et al., 2006. p. 86). In the end, the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s financial difficulties because of illicit drug use may put children at risk for homelessness. Historical Summary/ Outline Our country has a long history on trying to control substances that may negatively affect its citizen. During mid-1800, as the number of Chinese immigrant grows, we have seen an increase in Opium usage. Because of this the city of San FranciscoRead MoreThe Ascent Of Money : A Financial History Of The World Essay1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesargues that the ascent of money is the main driving force to build the history of human, ranging from ancient Mesopotamia, Roman Empire, gold and silver of the Incas to many powerful financial families such as House of Medicis, Rothchilds, Rising of Amsterdam bank and London Bank to the hedge funds of twenty-first century. In six chapters of the book, Ferguson examined the process of forming the milestones contributing to the modern financial world: the origin of the currency, bonds, stock, insuranceRead MoreReport On Magnum Ice Cream982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReport for Magnum ice cream, (UK) For the period of time Image 1- Executive summary This report will focus on the corporate objectives and strategies of Magnum ice cream in the United Kingdom. Magnum is an ice cream brand owned by the British/Dutch Unilever company. Magnum offers a vast variety of ice cream worldwide.Today, Magnum is one of the world s leading ice cream brands, selling one billion units annually worldwide, and it is the biggest brandRead MoreRoyal Philips Has A Long Standing And Rich History1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesoverall health of the organization. Based on the research, I will be in a position to make recommendations to the company for improvement. Introduction Corporate name, founding date, founding leaders. Philips was established on May, 18 1891, in Amsterdam. Gerard Philips and his father Frederik founded Philips and Company, which is known today as Royal Philips or Koninklijke Philips in Europe. Gerard had no business experience, but did have extensive technical knowledge. He had previously workedRead MoreThe Three Views of Conflict: How Criminal Justice Agencies Function in the Midst of Conflict1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe content and goals of the work (Robbins Judge, 2011). The second type is relationship conflict; this conflict focuses on how group members relate to one another. The third type is process conflict which focuses on how the work gets done. In summary, these three conflict views, not all conflicts are counterproductive. Conflict can be either functional or dysfunctional as seen in the interactionist view of conflict. When conflict occurs in a group that causes constant strife and discord, the
Monday, May 18, 2020
Jackie Pappas Professor Winchock ENWR 106-AN March 5, 2013 Paper #2 Ã¢â¬â Middle Draft Gender amp; Sexuality Our everyday lives are greatly affected by ones gender and sexuality. They shape who we are and define our identities. Society expects a certain gender to behave in a specific way and if this does not happen, one is seen as shameful and wrong, leaving the individual to feel defeated and out of place. In society only a few decades ago, women were meant to be silent and restricted. Men were the superior ones who had a voice. They freely got to do whatever they pleased. In Julia AvarezÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Daughter of Invention and Judith Ortiz CoferÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Changeling,Ã¢â¬ women were restricted of their true identities and their voices wereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the Dominican Republic under TrujilloÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, women were only expected to be two things: a wife and a mother. They were restricted to being anything but. They did not have permission to explore their interests such as inventing. Women were expected to take care of the house and the family and if they did anything else, saying theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be in trouble is an understatement. Women were not allowed to be free to be who they are. Women were expected to only take care of the family and the house even if they wanted to do something else. It is still joked about today all over the Internet that women belong in the kitchen. While it is meant as a harmless joke, it is a reality for others. For example, it was a reality for the speaker in Ã¢â¬Å"The Changeling.Ã¢â¬ While her father was very amused with his daughter dressing as a man, her mother was not. When it was time for the family to sit down for dinner, the mother Ã¢â¬Å"[forbad her] from sitting down with them as a manÃ¢â¬ (Cofer 725). The mother felt that when her daughter dressed in her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes, it was distracting her from being a girl. She is forced to go back into the closet to change back into her expected outfit. The speaker, who once saw a closet full of adventure, then saw the same closet as a dark space (Cofer 725). When she emerged from the closet, back into reality, she walked back into Ã¢â¬Å"the real world of her [motherÃ¢â¬â¢s] kitchenÃ¢â¬ (Cofer
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Escaping is a pleasure to some people and to some it was a necessity, like to Jack Werber, Ã¢â¬Å"Escape was not our goal since it was so unrealistic. What we wanted was to survive, to live long enough to tell the world what had happened in Buchenwald.Ã¢â¬ This quote by Jack Werber is inspiring to some people. Jack Werber did live long enough to tell his story, like a lot of Tutsis in the Rwandan genocide. The Rwandan Genocide impacted not only the Tutsis, but the world. Its surprising how a place outside of the United States made such a big impact on the world. A genocide similar to the Holocaust took place in a small african country. Rwanda, is a small landlocked state in central and east Africa. Located a few degrees south of the Equator.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦On the day of April 6th 1994, the mass murders sparked a ferocious wave of bloody reprisals as thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus were slaughtered over the next three months, killing almost 10,000 peop le everyday. Hutu extremists were told to load up on weapons like knives, guns, axes, whatever they could find so they could kill tutsis. They could do whatever they wanted to the Tutsis. The Hutu government said Ã¢â¬Å"Spare no one, especially the babies.Ã¢â¬ The Hutus goal was to kill every Tutsi in Rwanda. As told by Border guards, people have been floating down the river in hundreds everyday for weeks. Many bodies had their hands tied behind their backs. They were either shot, hacked, clubbed, burned, or drowned. During the 100 days of the brutal massacre known as the Rwandan Genocide, between 800,000 to a million people were tragically murdered. Tutsis were not the only ones being killed. Hutus were also being killed for various reasons. If people thought they felt regretful for what they were doing to the Tutsi, they would be killed. If the Hutus tried to help the Tutsi in anyway they were killed. Many of the Hutus were killed if they opposed the killing campaign and the forces directing it. The Rwandan genocide was planned. Even before the plane was shot down killing the Habyarimana president, the Hutus were planning on killing the TutsiÃ¢â¬â¢s, wiping out their whole population. Hutu leaders were secretlyShow MoreRelatedThe Rwandan Genocide : 100 Days Of Mass Slaughter1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Rwandan Genocide: 100 Days of Mass Slaughter Ã¢â¬Å"Seldom in history has a once-dominant group suffered so terrible a reversal of fortune as the Tutsi of RwandaÃ¢â¬ - Robin Hallet. The event that Robin Hallet is referring to is the Rwandan Genocide, the Ã¢â¬Å"genocidal mass slaughterÃ¢â¬ of the Tutsi (the minority group in Rwanda) and a few Hutu (the dominant group in Rwanda) by Ã¢â¬Å"members of the Hutu majority,Ã¢â¬ which resulted in at least 1 million Rwandan deaths. The Rwandan Genocide was indirectly causedRead MoreInternational Community Is Culpable For The Rwandan Genocide1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesApril to June 1994, in a mere 100 days, approximately 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu were murdered during the Rwandan genocide (Destexhe, 1994). The international community failed to prevent or stop this slaughter. Considering the horrific nature of this genocide and the vast number of victims, there is a question whether the international community is culpable for the Rwandan genocide; specifically, the role o f its key players, the US, the UN, France and Belgium. I will argue that the internationalRead MoreThe Rwandan Genocide1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRwandan Genocide The Rwandan Genocide began on April 6, 1994 and lasted for about 100 days (History). The two groups involved, the Hutus and Tutsis, were in a massive conflict after their president was killed. The Hutus brutally killed about 800,000 Tutsis and supporters. This tragic genocide was not stopped by other countries during its peak, leaving the world wondering why. As we commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide, it is important to be informed about the tragedy. The wayRead MoreRwanda Genocide: Who Is to Blame?1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Genocide in Rwanda: Who is to Blame? By Maria Chiara Billones Lucatello February 3, 2010 International Relations Mr. Conzemius Ã¢â¬Å"A small boy of 11 years, was curled up in a ball of fresh flesh and blood, in his eyes was a glance of lost hope, abandonment, and defeat. He was without vision; A little girl at nine years of age, was pinned up against a treeÃ¢â¬ ¦her legs apart, and she was covered in things even hell canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine; excrement, urine and blood . . . in her mouth was cold fresh meat, cutRead MoreA Look at the Rwandan Genocide Essay1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Thousands of people died. The only reason is because they were a different political party. There are terrible economies. People are suffering and have very little hope. Genocide is the only reason. Everything could have been prevented if genocide didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. The world basically ignored the genocide and pretended like it never happened because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to spend the money. Thousands of people could still be alive if the world stepped up at helped the victims of this horrible crime. RwandaRead MoreThe Rwandan Genocide And The Genocide1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSohal/ Mrs. Love Period 3 17 October 2014 The Rwandan Genocide A genocide is defined as the deliberate killing of a group of people, especially of a certain ethnicity. By that definition and almost any other a dictionary could define, the killing of the Tutsis was certainly a genocide.The Rwandan Genocide occurred in 1994, in an African country called Rwanda. A long history of building friction between the Hutus and the Tutsis undeniably caused the mass murder of over 800,000 Tutsis, but various countriesÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreThe Death Of Julius Caesar By William Shakespeare And The Rwandan Genocide1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJulius Caesar by William Shakespeare and the Rwandan Genocide in 1994. The omens and nightmares in the play foreshadow the death of Julius Caesar that later resulted to chaos in Rome. The events that lead to the assassination of Julius Caesar are predicted by omens from characters such as his wife Calphurnia, the Soothsayer, Artemidorus and from the environment. Similarly, many warnings in the Rwanda history triggered the genocid al slaughter, the Rwandan Genocide. The warnings illustrated tensions betweenRead MoreEssay on Genocide: Examples of Rowanda and Germany885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefinition, genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwandas Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by the Hutu dominated government under the Hutu Power ideals. Hutus believed the Tutsi were taking their jobs, and that they were foreigners who had worn out their welcome (Genocide-Rwanda). In comparison to Germany, the largest genocide in history,Read MoreInformative Speech on Rwandan Genocide Outline1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBen Johnson Intro to Comm. 1320-04 11/8/12 Rwandan Genocide General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To share with the class that the Rwandan Genocide was a brutal genocide that most people know little about. Thesis: The Rwandan Genocide is one of the lesser known, quickest, and most inhumane genocides this world has ever seen, and it is still affecting the people of Rwanda till this day. Organizational Pattern: Topical Introduction I. Attention Getter:Read More Genocide in Rwanda Essay1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGenocide War is not a necessary evil humans must endure. Although, war is not necessary, humans go to war to try to gain power, fortune, and to spread their particular groupÃ¢â¬â¢s religions and beliefs. By definition civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. The chaos of war
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Geography 142 Life In Syria Syria is a country located in the Middle Eastern region of the world, and is currently in the stages of developing. It is located on the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and lies between the neighboring countries of Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Turkey, and Lebanon. Much of SyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is based on agriculture, oil, industry and services. All of which are major reasons why Syria could be a developing country. SyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s population has been steadily increasing since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, and today has reached a population of about 22 million. The majority religion in Syria, like most Middle Eastern countries, is Islam. Therefore the main language spoken in Syria is Arabic because it is the universal language spoken in Islam.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦above sea level. (e.g. The Euphrates River runs through the east end of the country and was dammed off in 1973. As a result, water was retained and a reservoir was created. This reservoir was named Lake Assad and is the largest lake in the country. According to Princeton.edu, only about 28% of all the land in Syria is arable, 46% of the land is meadows and pastures, and 3% is forests and woodland. The landscape is mostly arid, so crops like wheat and barley make up two-thirds of the agriculture in the country. Cotton is also a major cash crop grown in Syria and is and has been a big part of their economy for years. As water is a scarce resource in Syria and other neighboring countries, most of these crops are grown in the Euphrates river valley. Overall, agriculture contributes to a large portion of SyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Syria is still a developing country in the Middle East. Its economy is based on agriculture and oil. Just these two pillars in the Syrian economy make up for about one half of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Since the start of the Syrian civil war, SyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has taken a huge hit. The government has restricted trade between several countries such as the United States, Japan, and Australia. As a result, Syria has been faced with a major economic decline. These restrictions have reversed the otherwise growing economy. According to the United Nations (UN), there have been an estimated 143 billion dollars in economic damages as a result of the civil war.
1.Introduction The focus of this study is to investigate ways in which Brownfield sites can be developed to create sustainable, multifunctional public open spaces that donÃ¢â¬â¢t suppress natural processes. The investigation will centre on:- the importance of Brownfield sites; sustainable and viable development; and relevant case studies. We will write a custom essay sample on Can Brownfield Sites Become Multi-functional Landscapes? or any similar topic only for you Order Now What is Multi-functional SpaceÃ¢â¬Å"Something that is multi-functional does several things or has several different usesÃ¢â¬ . (Macmillan Dictionary definition). In landscape terms, multi-functionalism is the making of design provision for the many demands that are placed upon a site. In the past, landscape design has focused on the need to solve one particular problem, such as purely aesthetic values. In recent times, a broader approach to design is becoming increasingly important, due to higher pressures on land use and the idea of social, economical and ecological sustainability. Historically, landscape design has not been concerned with multi-functionalism, although naturally, some landscapes have evolved to accommodate different needs, thus becoming multi-functional. Increasing pressures on land has forced designers to become progressively more aware that space needs to be utilised, as a result of population growth and the needs that this creates, such as industry, housing, energy resources and transport. As a result, designers need to find ways to warrant the creation of open spaces by making them multi-functional, thereby meeting different needs and fully utilising the space. 2. Brownfield Sites This section will look at what a Brownfield site is and why they are important. 2.1 What, Where and Why Brownfield sites are defined as Ã¢â¬Å"previously developed landÃ¢â¬ (London Development Agency). These can be found throughout urban areas, old residential areas or more commonly on ex-industrial land. As a result of this industrial past, many Brownfield sites are registered as contaminated, normally by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution. Many can be found in areas of high density that are under pressure for development and regeneration. There are over 66,000 hectares of Brownfield sites in England and about 30% are in high-growth areas (The Ecologist, 2005), resulting in most developments of Brownfield sites being residential. The government set a target that 60% of new developments are to be built on Brownfield sites. This has been met 8 years before schedule (Brownfield Land Redevelopment: Position Statement, 2003). The speed at which this target was met has called for targets to be made at a regional level rather that nationally, whilst also trying to promote the appropriate sustainable development uses, not focused solely on building. Ã¢â¬ËSome Brownfield and derelict land can represent important wildlife habitat, public green space or a core part of urban green networks. These are important in providing good quality of life, and Brownfield reuse must strike an appropriate balance in the interests of sustainable development.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Environment agency, 2003) Brownfield sites are becoming more and more important to natural process as areas of land are become more urbanised. They contribute to the flood alleviation, wild life habitats and urban green space. 2.3 Important Assets of Brownfield Sites Brownfield sites are seen by most people as an eye-sore and waste land but they can support as many rare invertebrates as ancient woodlands. Though some may not be ideal habitats for invertebrates, they can be ideal for small mammals, birds, insects and plant species. This section will look at some of the benefits and assets that these sites may have. Vegetation Vegetation on Brownfield site is very rarely intentional and normally plants have naturally colonized the site or unintentionally be introducing to the site in foreign waste, such as waste soil and rubble. The majority of the time it is the hardy alien (non-native) species that initially establish but as Brownfield site do not have high grade soil they find it hard to take hold and native species, larger vegetation and tree and start to colonize the site. One of the most important factors of Brownfield vegetation it that it is unmanaged and as a result is constantly changing. Scrubland will become grass land and grass land will become woodland. This dynamic landscape is the reason why Brownfield site are among the most bio diverse places in urban areas. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, they are one of the some sustainable place due to plants only growing where condition are right, in contrast with maintained parks where conditions are artificially changed to support the needs of the plant. This Quote state the typical approach to park maintains in Britain and questions its value. Ã¢â¬ËTraditionally the design and management of British parks has favoured an ornamental and manicured appearance. This limits the potential of existing parks as ecologically functional green spaces. In order to enhance the opportunities for biodiversity, park management plans can be revised with the aim of encouraging more species-rich and structurally diverse vegetation. Common examples include reducing mowing to encourage wildflowers and the establishment of field and shrub layers under trees.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Town and Country Planning Association, Biodiversity by Design, 2004) Invertebrates One of the reasons why these Brownfield sites tend to be so good for invertebrates is due to the complex life-cycle of these invertebrates, with each stage of growth having different requirements. The repetitive disturbance and the poor quality soil of some sites, naturally promotes the development of a variety of different habitats that these invertebrates require. Due to the increasing pressure on countryside habitats from agriculture and development, urban Brownfield sites could be the saviour of some rare species. Ã¢â¬Å"The intensification of farming has led to the loss of flower-rich grasslands from the countryside, leaving Brownfield sites as the last refuge for species reliant upon such resources.Ã¢â¬ (Buglife-Brownfields, 2011) Brownfield sites are often used for unofficial purposes that result in areas with reduced vegetation or bare ground and this becomes an environment in itself. Significantly, the Brownfield site is one of the only places where this type of habitat occurs in urban areas. Bare ground warms up rapidly in sunshine and is used by burrowing and ground nesting invertebrates, which provides a foraging area for visual predators. A population of invertebrates will attract more animals and in turn, through increased opportunities for predators, there will be a greater variety of animals, bringing about a more complete eco system. Butterflies and Moths Moths and Butterflies are one of the insect groups that have been severely affected by changes made to the countryside through agriculture and re-forestation. This has resulted in urban ex-industrial land becoming of vital importance to support healthy colonies of butterflies and moths. There are a large number of butterflies that can be found on Brownfield sites, such as the Small Copper, Peacock and Common Blue. But Brownfield sites can also be home to numerous different rare and endangered species, such as the Small Blue, Grayling and Dingy Skipper, which are all on the UKBAP priority species list. As stated earlier, sites that have colonised slowly and naturally, often develop a variety of different micro habitats. Butterflies and Moths act as a perfect example of insects which need a variety of environments, due to their complicated life-cycle. The site has to provide areas of sparse vegetation, food opportunities for the young caterpillar and an array of nectar source for adults. The sites should also be sheltered and have good sun exposure. The reason why butterfly colonies are important on Brownfield sites is because they both create and are a good indicator of biodiversity, as they react very quickly to environmental change. This makes them a good measure of ecological health; if there are a large variety of butterflies, the site will usually support lots of other species. Ã¢â¬Å"Butterflies are increasingly being recognised as valuable environmental indicators, both for their rapid and sensitive responses to subtle habitat or climatic changes and as representatives for the diversity and responses of other wildlifeÃ¢â¬ (UKBMS, 2010) Flooding Flooding is becoming an increasingly important issue as concerns about climate change grow. A study done by the University of East Anglia has shown that there has been an increase in heavy precipitation in the last hundred years, which cannot be seen as a result of man-made climate change. In parallel, we are covering our urban landscape with non-permeable surfacing such as concrete and natural paving, giving the surface water nowhere to go, leading to over-flowing sewers and damage to infrastructure. This is making our urban green spaces (including Brownfield sites) increasingly more important as a way of dealing with this water through infiltration into the soil and transpiration. There are ways to improve how these urban green spaces manage water, but some methods of cliff stabilisation and the implementation of flood defences can be detrimental to natural habitats. Ã¢â¬Å"Scientists at the University Of East Anglia (UEA) have found that winter precipitation Ã¢â¬â such as rain and snow Ã¢â¬â became more intense in the UK during the last 100 years.Ã¢â¬ (Science Daily, Feb. 15, 2008) The next group of images shows what the increasing urbanisation is doing to natural systems and the wider affect this is having on the environment. Brownfield sites can help alleviate this problem. 2.3 Options for the future management and development There are three options when looking at the future of Brownfield site as in the future it will not be possible to just continue to leave them. This section will look in to the three options available, Protect, Re-locate, re-establish Protection Protection of Brownfield site could be a good option for sites that have high ecological value. This would protect them for future development and any detrimental effect from human disturbance. As was mentioned before there are huge pressures on Brownfield site for development so there needs to be a viable reason for the blocking of development. There is already ways in which site can become protected, one of which is them become registered as a SSSI and there for very unlike to be disturbed. Even though some of these site could be considered as SSSI quality they rarely get recognised, this can be seen in a page by Andy Mclay titled Ã¢â¬ËA review of non-statutory grassland sites within the Durham Magnesian Limestone Natural AreaÃ¢â¬â¢. Another way that sites can be protected is as a habitat for protected species such as Bats and Great Crested Newts. Re-location Relocation is now being used by developers, to allow then to build of specific areas. If the site wanting to be developed has protected species then in some case these animals can be moved to a suitable location, sometimes this leads to the creation of new habitats. This has because very popular when dealing with newts and amphibians. There seems to be two issues with this relocation of habitats and most of these revolve around the relocated animals. One is that the species will not take to their new home and as result a decline in population. Another problem is that when relocating animals in to new, existing habitats they may have a negative impact on animals already inhabiting the site. Re-establish The final option is the re-establishment of use on the site. The site has to be adapted or change to accommodate necessary public or private needs. This is the area in which the focus of this essay is going to look at, whilst taking to account the other options. 2.4How are they perceived? Ã¢â¬Å"It has become conventional wisdom to see the modern city as the product of cheap energy, economic forces, high technology and a denial of nature; as the epitome of environmental deteriorationÃ¢â¬ (Hough, M, 1983). As was mentioned in 2.1, a large amount of Brownfield sites are located in high growth areas. As these sites are located in developed or developing sites, new builds will already have a surrounding infrastructure, making them a safer investment for developers. Also, councils predominantly prefer to build on urban Brownfield sites to reduce urban sprawl. For these two reasons it is difficult to warrant green space development for public space unless it is multi-functional. The public attitude to Brownfield sites does not reflect their ecological and environmental qualities. Many see them as places for illegal activities, such as drug abuse and fly-tipping, mainly due to the lack of security, safety and maintenance. After taking a selected group to one of LeedsÃ¢â¬â¢s many ex-industrial Brownfield sites, this idea of public disapproval was confirmed. To gather some primary research as small group of people were taken to a Brownfield site in Armley, situated between the river Aire and the Leeds-Liverpool canal. Though this site is position away from the majority of the surrounding urban dominance, bored by two water course their initial reaction were very negative. Some of the words used to describe the area were; uninteresting, boring, dodgy, pointless, dangerous, lost and dirty. They were then asked what they would do to improve the site, not one of the answer mention the preservation of any of the existing areas. This high lights the main negative view the public have of these abandoned forgotten places. Human Benefits There are many human benefits to having quality, sustainable and bio-diverse public spaces. One is how these spaces can bring the community together, through volunteer work and a place to act as a meeting place. Cities are expanding at such a rate that districts are losing their individuality and community spirit. Could development of Brownfield site help to give back this community feelIs come cases public parks have be created trough community projects which can only be beneficial but volunteers tend to consisted of the older generation that have the time to spend. Mental health is becoming a growing concern in urban area as stress level increase year on year. There has been suggestions that having access to natural and urban green space can improve mental health, even recovery rates in hospitals. Further scientific research has been carried out to see if there are any significant benefits to mental well-being. Ã¢â¬Å"Access to good quality green space provides an effective, population-wide strategy for the promotion of good health, wellbeing and quality of lifeÃ¢â¬ (Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 2007, The Urban Environment, TSO). There was a wide range of different research method used which found that just having nature visible has powerful effect on human health as well as increasing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive functions. The evidence collected is strong enough that councils should consider areas of natural planning in newly developed area and existing communities. There are also more physical benefits to have local green space. These include:- a place to take part in sporting activities such a walking, football and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play areas. In a survey carried out by Sport England 2003 walking was found to be the most popular activity (75%), then use of play area (43%) and relaxing enjoying the aesthetic qualities (28%). Hidden way in some Brownfield site can be remnants of significant cultural structures. These could consist of factory buildings, mines, important historical social building. These can be an important focal point for the surrounding community, reflecting what their community used to be based around. Conclusion Naturalised Brownfield sites can become ideal habitats for rare and endangered species and, as a result, form an urban connection with nature that is missing in many of our urban areas. However the huge ecological importance of these sites is not reflected the public views of them, most people see them as a place of crime, waste and are a negative aspect. The reason that they are so diverse is due to the lack of human interaction but this also makes then near unusable spaces. Also Brownfield space can have an important role in the natural systems they the urbanisation has disrupted, as well as benefitting the life of the city dwellers. The next section is going to investigate whether it is possible to develop these Brownfield sites in a way that makes then usable spaces whilst retaining some of their important assets, making them multifunctional. 3. Case Studies This section will explore three existing sites that and looked at the way that they have tried to improve Brownfield site from multifunctional public use. 3.1 Qiaoyuan Park Qiaoyuan Park, Tianjin, China is an excellent example of ecological design. It has been designed taking in to account natural processes and the demand for a relaxed recreational space for local people. Through natural processes, this park addresses such issues as soil contamination and the distribution of storm water. The concept of the design was Ã¢â¬Å"Adaptive PalettesÃ¢â¬ , planted with native species that were allowed to develop naturally. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatic urbanisation and economic boom has placed it in a perfect position to become the world leaders in sustainable city developments, where natural process will become a lynch pin in the longevity of the modern city. Densely populated at the south and east boundaries, the site is bordered on the west and north sides by a highway and an overpass. Originally, it was a 22 hectare shooting range, but due to the rapid urbanisation had become TianjinÃ¢â¬â¢s rubbish dump and more importantly, a drainage sink for storm water. The development project for Qiaoyuan Park started in 2003 and the local government wanted the site to be transformed to provide instant impact. As I mention earlier in this study, the best way to encourage biodiversity is to let a site evolve and colonise naturally. Some of the aims for the site were to naturally improve the poor saline-alkaline soil, to reflect the natural surrounding environment, to help keep the park as low maintenance as possible and introduce a method of holding and purifying storm water through natural processes. The challenge for the designers was how to incorporate soil improvement, storm water purification, environmental education and useable public space with aesthetic qualities. The city of Tianjin is situated in North East China and was once surrounded by salt marshes and wetlands, which have now unfortunately, due to urbanisation and human pressures, disappeared. This is where the inspiration for the park was taken, with a focus on the variety that can be created through changes in the ph values, nutrient values and the water table. These varieties would then result in creating a range of pockets of different native plant and animal communities, with the slogan Ã¢â¬Ëlet nature workÃ¢â¬â¢. The final design incorporates 21 pond cavities, ranging in size between 10 Ã¢â¬â 40m and 1 Ã¢â¬â 5m in depth. Each cavity was constructed at different levels, for example, some being excavated on mounds, others excavated to create lower points across the site, allowing the pond cavities to have their own changing characteristics throughout the seasons. Some became ponds, wetlands, seasonal ponds and some remained dry. Storm water leaves behind minerals and nutrients in the ponds and wetlands whilst the saline-alkali soil in the dry cavities is improved due to filtration. As mentioned earlier, the local government wanted an instant impact, so initially seed mixes were used to give the vegetated areas a kick start, but unplanned native species were allowed to grow. Looking at the park in plan view, you can see that it is made up of a collection of pockets of vegetation, split by several serpentine red asphalt walkways, which have along their sides, information boards to help educate the urbanites about ecology and the natural environment. In some of the cavities, wooden platforms have been constructed to allow visitors to experience each pocket from it heart. Overall, this park has been seen as a great success and in the first two months of opening, hosted about 200,000 visitors and now sees thousands of visitors every day. This park shows that a biologically diverse landscape does not have to be an ugly, rough eye sore, but can be usable, beautiful and a benefit to the local community. This park does fulfil all the aims it set out to achieve but there are some areas and people that is does not seem to cater for. Parks are generally seen as a place of leisure, which include playing sports and physical activity. This park does not accommodate for that at all. It asks the question, is it possible to have a truly multi-functional space for both people and nature? 2.3 Minet Park The park is situated in a heavily built up area in the London Borough of Hillingdon, measuring approximately 36 ha. The majority of the site is surrounded by public and private building but is also bored by the Yeading Brook and is a short distance from the Grand Union Canal. The Minet site was originally use as grazing land but by 2000 had become mainly wasteland. There has been a wide variety of uses across the site, these range from harvesting of brick and earth resulting in area that have had to be in filled with hardcore and subsoil, to areas that have been polluted with chemical waste. There was also evidence of illegal fly tipping that can been seen in the image below. However the site did have strong ecological values despite ground contamination issues and invasive plants such as Japanese Knotweed. The reason for developing this waste land was to create a public green space to break up dense urban areas, however the main focus was to protects, conserve and enhance the existing ecological benefits. For the ecological impact assessment the site was divided up in to three section, a north section, central section and south section. The north section was found to have the least species diversity but as it was relatively undisturbed, provided a good habitat for breeding and wintering birds. The central section, due to the high levels of human disturbance was mainly made up of hard standing and poor quality grass giving it low ecological value. The south section was found to be the most diversity, being made up of small fields, scrub, hedges and a pond with drainage ditch. This assessment also found a number different species, Ã¢â¬Å"including 11 dragonfly, 21 butterfly and 94 bird species (with 35 of these breeding on the site, including several of Conservation Concern).Ã¢â¬ (A Rocha, 2009) In 2001 and 2002 the first stage in the development started, to clear up all the rubbish and start work on improving the poor quality central section of the park. This was done up the creation of four large bunds what where planted with a wildflower and grass mix. Also in 2002 a bird ringing program was started in the southern section of the site. This was carried out due to the high number of different Warbler species found. Warblers are migrating bird and the purpose of this research was to see if these birds return to the site year on year. In 2002 a total of 452 birds where ringed. In 2003 more extensive planting took place. Blocks of tree where planted throughout the northern section of the park, each block with curved edges and fringed by low growing species to help create a woodland edge habitat. This planting did not continue in to the central section as this had been listed as a conservation area. In addition to this the pond in the southern section of the site was cleaned and enlarged, with it profiles changed to become gradual and more natural looking. Gravel paths where introduced across the site. These where carefully located so that they did not affect the areas that supported more sensitive wildlife communities. I addition to all the ecological based improvements, a large amenity grass area was created in the centre of the site to cater for the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Throughout the design and construction of the site, a conservation charity called A Rocha was consulted. They helped by creating the ecological impact assessment and by allocating the areas that have to be isolated from human disturbance. Before the development of the Minet site it was cherished by the animals and plant that inhabited it. Through this redevelopment it is now appreciated by the local community, who as a result look after it. The importance and assets of the site have been highlighted. 3.3 Sudgelande Introduction Sudgelande, is a natural park located in central Berlin, which has now been made accessible to the public. Originally a shunting station, it was left unused for forty years and in that time was reclaimed by nature. It is now an official urban conservation area, where nature is protected by law, due to the rich bio-diversity. Many different design ideas have been used to accommodate the varying demands of the both people and nature. History Ã¢â¬â From freight rail yard to new wilderness The nature-park Sudgelande is situated on a part of a former much larger freight rail yard that was built between 1880-1890. The old photograph taken in the 1930s gives you an indication of its former utility and the fundamental change itÃ¢â¬â¢s undergone. The area was in full use until after the end of World War II when the train service was discontinued and only part of the site was used for repairing and housing trains. As the majority of the area was unused and neglected, the colonisation of native species occurred. After 45 years this natural growth became the foundation to the design, management and future public use of the land. Sites of this scale and location are very uncommon and this scenario only arose due to political reasons. Even though the site was in West Berlin, it was under East Berlin authority, as were all BerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s rail yards. Heavily used roads and tracks cut the site off, making it almost inaccessible to the public. As a result of this isolation and disuse, the site became forgotten. At the end of the 1970s there was a new awareness of the site, when the local authorities proposed the development of a new shunting station. The local citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ group opposed the plan for the new development and put forward an idea to create a nature park in its place. To support this, they asked for an ecological survey of the area to be carried out by the city government. The results of this survey showed that this abandoned rail yard was one of the most ecologically valuable areas in the city, due to the biodiversity that had naturally developed over thirty years. This survey and pressure from the local people culminated in the creation of a nature park. One of the reasons why the local authorities accepted the idea of the nature park was that the rapid development of Berlin in the nineties required some form of ecological colonisation. In addition, the property rights were handed over to the state of Berlin in 1996. One of the conditions for this handover was that the nature park would become an official protected area. This was open to the public in May 2000. The site is around 18 ha and around 1.5km in length. It is split into two conservation areas, one a nature conversation site and the other a landscape conservation site. The variety of geological and man-made features created the opportunity for the growth of multiple micro habitats and a large variety of naturally colonising flora and fauna to establish. Some of the geological man-made features are viaducts, ramps, embankments, open plains, and cuttings. From: Kowarik, 1992, Dahlman, 1998, Saure, 2001 (The following table 1 gives a quantitative impression of the diversity of the site.) Two surveys were carried out, one in 1981 and the other in 1992. These surveys showed a rapid increase in woody vegetation in this ten year period. The first survey showed that only 37% of the site was wooded. This figure almost doubled in the second survey when the wooded area was found to be 70%. This natural re-forestation would have been detrimental to the existing bio diversity values that the site had been protected for. The increase in tree numbers would have meant a decrease in other plant communities and a reduction in habitat varieties. from: Kowarik Langer, 1994 (according to Asmus, 1981 and Kowarik, 1992) The designers of the site used three main design principles to allow the site to be used by the public without adversely affecting the ecological qualities. The first principle was a direct result of some of the surveys mentioned above; this was the definition and maintenance of individual spaces. They grouped the site into three different area types, each with their own individual maintenance strategy. These were: Ã¢â¬Ëclearings have been opened and partly enlarged; stands that are light and open are to be maintained as groves; while in the wild woods the natural dynamics can proceed fully unfetteredÃ¢â¬â¢. There are two reasons for the creation of these groupings, one is to maintain the ecological importance across the site, and the other is to increase aesthetic and spatial qualities. Some changes had to be made to the site to make it accessible for the public. Tracks were created based around the old railway structure. Underpasses and ramps were also developed to create path systems on different planes. This was all done to have minimal impact. In the more highly protected nature conservation area, raised metal walkways have been installed which follow old rail tracks, making this important area accessible whilst protecting vegetation, as the walkways are raised 50cm above all vegetation. Although the site has been developed as a wilderness park, some cultural elements have been kept, such as water cranes, signals and rail turntables. These were enhanced by a group of artists called Odious who also played a big part in the designs of the raised metal walkways. One of the most iconic structures that remain in the site is the old water tower, which is a registered landmark. Another cultural element that has been allowed is graffiti on the retaining walls of the cuttings and fly-overÃ¢â¬â¢s. Sudgelande has become an excellent example of a nature park for the local community to learn and enjoy nature but there where unusual circumstances to it creation. This study is looking at the possibility to turn a Brownfield sites in to a multifunctional public open space. A site a not be just left for 30 years to develop naturally, to then be made access and maintain, there need to be some kind of instant impact. Having said that, there could be stages of development that happen at different times in reaction to the dynamic landscape. 4. Findings and Conclusion This section will explore the findings, as well as looking at some of the possible and most viable opportunities for making a space multifunctional. These have been chosen to show a cross section of the option and opportunities available when design dual purpose public open space. There have been many findings throughout this study, the importance of Brownfield sites and the way in which this can evolve to become usable multifunctional green spaces. One of the key finds that this study has uncovered is the environmental importance of Brownfield sites. It has shown that the common belief that a grassy park is more beneficial than abandoned ex-industrial land is not justified. Not only has the ecological importance been highlight but the need of these spaces for local communities and mental health. A connection with nature has to be kept especially in urban areas. In addition, if the public appreciate the place and the assets are made visible, the site will have some kind of protection and care, this could not only be physical but political. For a site to be appreciated by an entire community it needs to for fill their multiple needs, in other word be multifunctional, if public open space can for fill many different needs and requirements they will be seen as a necessity rather than a luxury. Another find of the study is that collective needs can have a single solution. An example of this can be seen in section, 3.1 Qiaoyuan Park. Series of pools have been use to help create wildlife habitats, act as SUDÃ¢â¬â¢s and become an aesthetic feature. Conclusion The title of this study is Ã¢â¬ËCan Brownfield Sites Become Multi-functional Landscapes?Ã¢â¬â¢, the answer is yes but it has also show more, it has shown that Brownfield site can and should be developed to create multifunction public open space but also that Brownfield site have so many important qualities that should not be overlooked. Designers should bear in mind that as country side habitats are being destroyed, urban parks are now not only for people but for nature too. After this study there are still some questions that arise. One is that, what makes green development viable, what are the makers, bearing in mind other development pressuresAnother is, is it possible for urban areas to take the place of declining country side habitats? This topic is important to the future development of urban landscape and these unused spaces could be the answer to some of the future problems. Bibliography Andreas Langer (2009) Urban Wildscapes [internet] Germany, Andreas Langer. Available from: [Accessed January 6th 2011] New York City Global Partners (2010) Best Practice: Railway Switchyard Converted into Green Space [internet]. New York. New York City Global Partners. Available from: [Accessed January 6th 2001] The Economist (2005) Blooms on brownfields: More private money is regenerating EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial wastelands [internet]. London. The Economist. Available from: [Accessed 23rd November] Environment Agency (2003) Brownfield Land Redevelopment: Position Statement [internet], London, Environment Agency. Available from: [Accessed 27th December 2010] ScienceDaily (2008) Heavy Rainfall On The Increase In UK [internet], ScienceDaily. Available from: [Accessed February 24th 2011] United Kingdom Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (2006) Butterflies as indicators. Dorset. UKBMS. Available from [Accessed 3rd February 2011] A Rocha (2004) Butterflies as indicators [internet], Cambridge, A Rocha. Available from [Accessed 1st March] Richard M. Daley, Ken Greenberg, Hillary Brown, Robert Campbell, Douglas I. Foy (2005) Logical: Greening the 21st Century City [internet], Massachusetts, MIT. Available from [Accessed 29th November 2010] http://www.cabe.org.uk/ SLA (2010) The City as Artificial Ecosystem. [internet], Copenhagen, World Landscape Architecture. Available from http://www.worldlandscapearchitect.com/ [Accessed 11th November 2010] Ian Douglas (No Data) Psychological and mental health benefits from nature and urban greenspace. [internet], Manchester, Ian Douglas. Available from [Accessed 7th January 2011] Ian Douglas (2004) Urban greenspace and mental health. [Internet], UK MAB. Available from [Accessed 7th January 2011] N.Miller, Peter Werner (2010) Urban biodiversity and design. Conservation science series no.7. Chichester. Wiley-Blackwell. Dunnett, Nigel (2004) The dynamic landscape: design, ecology and management of naturalistic urban planting. London. Spon Press. Hough, M, (presented 1981 Vancouver) edited P.A. Miller and L. Diamond (1982), The Urban Landscape Ã¢â¬â The Hidden Frontier, published by Frontier Landscape, Vol XV No 4 1983. Dixon, Timothy J (2007) Sustainable brownfield regeneration : liveable places from problem spaces. Oxford. Blackwell House BuildersÃ¢â¬â¢ Federation (1998) Urban life : breaking down the barriers to Brownfield Development. London. Housebuilders Federation. Michael Hough. (1984). City Form and Natural Process. London: Routledge. Don Gill and Pynelope Bonnett. (1973). Nature in the Urban Landscape, A Study of City Ecostystems.Boltimore: York Press, Inc O.L. Gilbert. (1989).The Ecology of Urban Habitats. New York: Chapman and Hall Middlesbrough Borough Council. (1993). Space for Nature , In Middlesbrough. Middlesbrough: Middlesbrough Borough Council. Berkowitz, Alan R. Hollweg, Karen S. Nilon, Charles H. (2002). Understanding Urban Ecosystems. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Great Britain. Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (2008). Start with the park : creating sustainable urban green spaces in areas of housing growth and renewal. London. CABE. How to cite Can Brownfield Sites Become Multi-functional Landscapes?, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about the Sexism and Misogyny in Christian Tradition. Answer: Introduction: In the Book of Genesis, Old Testament, the heavenly Garden of Eden was inhabited by the first man and woman in the world, Adam and Eve. In this story, God creates Eve from one of the ribs of Adam, the reason, to give him company, or more precisely as his companion(Hawkins 206). This creates an image of women of being a mere resource for male. Moreover, the image of the God and his son further implements the male centric views in the Old Testament (Keil et al.). Since then the depiction of women was mostly complementary to the depiction of males and in a way that suggested the female ought to follow the footsteps of males. The women are first under the authority of their father, then their husbands after marriage, and after the death of her husband, the authority shifts to the husbands brother. Such a form of subordination of women was further impressed by the fact that women bore no signs of being members of the covenant family, as their male counterparts would have through male circ umcisions. Even though the Genesis also mentions that both men and women were created in the image of God, but since it also tells about God creating Adam first in his own image, puts males in a superior image than the females, in this context (Zevit 33). The book of Genesis further befouls the feminine image by saying that it was the women who brought disobedience in the world (Wold 330). There are many other accounts where women have been objectified and considered as a commodity. In Sam 20:30, Saul curses Jonathan as a son of perverse rebellious woman. This statement underlined the ideology that a foolish son is a dishonor for the mother, and not the father (Mechon-mamre.org). Another example where women have been objectified can be found in the story of Lot, who gave his two daughters to two complete strangers, in order to persuade them not to engage in any homosexual act with the people outside (Simons 210). Such negative views of women in the Old Testament consequently justifi ed and even warranted the routine subjugation of women. And the subjugation later spiraled into atrocities, as the societies built on the beliefs of the Old Testament, became patriarchal. Christianity adopted these beliefs from the Old Testament, and has established many of these beliefs as social constructs (Bishop). One significant social construct that still exist any several countries that has its root in the Old Testament, is the identification of the woman, first as a part of her fathers family, and then as a part of her husbands family after her marriage, which is symbolized by the change in the family name of the wife (Modise). During the medieval period, the status of women however started changing with the stories of extraordinary women achieving extraordinary fame and support, and consequently acquiring important positions. However, for the majority, the roles of women were still restricted to the predefines roles, and the women still suffered continued misery of domestic violence, subjugation and abuse. It can be understood how such atrocities could have influence from the scriptures (Modise; Ruether 90). Homosexuality, Early Christianity and the Medieval Age The Old Testament repeatedly warns all followers against homosexuality. Leviticus 18,20 prohibits homosexual acts as an abomination(Willmington). The book further suggests that those who commit such abomination should be put to death, and the responsibility will solely be on them. This has been one of the most significant code of conduct that has been used to implement prohibitions against homosexuality. The story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the book of Genesis clearly explains that homosexuality is a sin, the punishment for which is the wrath of God and complete annihilation. In fact, the story and its influence go so deep, that the word sodomy itself evolved from the word Sodom. Even in the New Testament, homosexuality is not spared, and it continued the process of criminalization of homosexuality. Book of Romans 1:26 considers it an act which is against the nature as well as a deviation from the natural use of women. This clearly implies both a homophobic as well as misogynistic. In the Cornithians 6:9, it is mentioned that unrighteous shall not inherit the gods holy kingdom. In this context, the unrighteous were those committing adultery, fornication, or homosexual acts, as well as drunkards, effeminates, or extortionist. This clearly indicts homosexuality as a sin so grave that one gets deprived of peace after death. It can be understandable why such a grave warning was taken very seriously by many. Even the teachings of Jesus Christ assumed the institute of marriage to be applicable only for a relation between a man and a woman, and do not say anything about marriage of homosexual couples. For a character, who preached against many of the teachings of the Old Testament, not opposing the homophobic ideologies was a major sign that the New Testament also endorsed the same anti homosexual beliefs as its older version (Jackson 87; Barton). In the Medieval period, the persecution of homosexuals reached its peak, and its codes were directly influenced by the scriptures of the old and new testaments, directly condemning homosexuality (Boswell). Homosexuality became a sin as grave as Satanism, during the early 14th century. During this time several people were criminalized and prosecuted for homosexual activities. Commonly given punishment were long acts of penance for first time offenders, and for repeated offenders the punishments became increasing harsher, like castration and even death on the third offence (McNeil). This clearly showed how the religious beliefs were used to justify the prosecution of homosexuals in that period. Gender, Islam and the status of women in the Middle East: In Islam, the ideologies of the Old Testament can be reflected in many of its teachings. The Quran also preaches of the one God, and his messenger. In all the accounts, the messenger is shown as a man (Moses, Christ, Mohammad). This helped to solidify the social position of the males, above that of the females (Fatemi 95). The Quran upholds the superiority of men, deeming women to be inferior, and considering women as a mans belonging. This clearly showed how the systematic objectification of the female gender was implicated by these Judaic religions. The scriptures further states that apart from the fact that a woman can be a mans property or bounty, a man can also be the owner of many properties. This clearly puts in place a male dominated structure, with a single male at the centre. The qualities of a righteous woman, in the Quran have been that of a docile, obedient and quiet individual, who would seldom complain even in the face of adversities. On the other hand, the scriptures prescribe punishment for women who would have a rebellious nature (Shaikh). The importance of women in the Quran is also further depreciated by the fact that in financial and legal matters, the woman only has only half the rights as that of a man. It clearly demonstrates, that gender equality was not a concern in the Quran, and it fostered the male centric view of the society (Fatemi). The tradition of women being identified by their male family members continued unabated through the ages, supported by the early Judaic scriptures and also in Quran. Many other accounts can be found all over the scriptures that objectify and demote the position of women in our society. The consideration that a woman can earn the grace of the God by being obedient of the husband, clearly puts women in a subordinate position, and prevents the possibility of true equality of rights (Ahmad et al). Moreover, stories like that of the 72 virgins in heaven for the martyrs of god clearly showed how women were considered as sexual objects, whose primary purpose was procreation of their children. If such an oppressive view was not enough, the view of women were further marred by the consideration that women are a distraction for men from performing their duties, and they can bring about the downfall of a community. This places a deep seated sense of mistrust towards the female gender, and a biased view regarding their role in the society. The scriptures forbid women to be given any authority in the society, apart from their roles as mothers and wives and serve as merely extensions of men. The concept of Hijab (or the religious dress code in Islam for women, which covers them head to toe), can be attributed to such ideologies. The importance of the overalls is so important in Islam, that a woman without a veil is considered nothing more than being naked, and therefore is directly against the teachings of Islam. In the Middle East, the position of women is still being subjugated by male domi nation. In Saudi Arabia, women are still not permitted to drive and cannot travel alone without a male companion (even be it a male toddler). Strong moral policing still exists that actively dissuades its citizens not to forget their traditional hijab when in public places. These inequalities against women have been systematically justified thought history by the citing the teachings of Prophet Muhammad and the scriptures of the Quran (Rita 340; Hodge 243). The status of Homosexuality saw no improvement in the Quran, than it did in the Old Testament. Islam incorporates many of the stories from the Old Testament, including the story of the Sodomy and Gomorrah, acting as a warning against the act of homosexuality, stating that such act shall be punished by the God. The scriptures further prescribe death by stoning for the homosexuals and adulterers. The scripture makes it clear those homosexuals, apostates, adulterers all are sinners in equal capacities, and are condemned to eternal suffering in the hereafter, even after being punished with brutal death (Dejong 339). Death penalty for homosexuality still exists for many Islamic countries around the world. In Uganda, Iran and UAE, and homophobic sentiments are further made strong by the Islamic Fundamentalist ideologies. Extremist groups like the ISIS directly quotes teachings from the Quran, which criminalizes homosexuality, and uses that to condemn anyone suspected of being homosexual to death. This systematic oppression of homosexuals is not uncommon in most of the Islamic countries around the world, evidently showing a pattern of intolerance propagated through the religious beliefs against this community (Hamdi et al. 688; Zuhur et al 29; Alipour 1930). References: Ahmad, Naveed, Hurmat Sumaiya Binti Bashir, and Yousfi Karima. "Status of Women in Islam: A Perspective." (2015). Alipour, M. "Essentialism and Islamic Theology of Homosexuality: A Critical Reflection on an Essentialist Epistemology toward Same-Sex Desires and Acts in Islam."Journal of homosexuality64.14 (2017): 1930-1942. Barton, John. "The Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament."The Hebrew Bible: A Critical Companion(2016): 1. Bishop, Heather. "Bone of My Bones and Flesh of My Flesh: A Feminist Analysis of Christianity, Evolutionary Theory, and the Provenance of Patriarchy."Dialogue Nexus3.1 (2016): 4. Boswell, John.Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: Gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century. University of Chicago Press, 2015. DeJong, Christina, and Eric Long. "The death penalty as genocide: The persecution of homosexuals in Uganda."Handbook of LGBT communities, crime, and justice. Springer, New York, NY, 2014. 339-362. Fatemi, Sayyed Mohsen. "Women in the Holy Quran."Feminism and Religion: How Faiths View Women and Their Rights: How Faiths View Women and Their Rights(2016): 95. Fatemi, Sayyed Mohsen. "Women in the Holy Quran."Feminism and Religion: How Faiths View Women and Their Rights: How Faiths View Women and Their Rights(2016): 95. Hamdi, Nassim, Monia Lachheb, and Eric Anderson. "Masculinity, homosexuality and sport in an Islamic state of increasing homohysteria."Journal of Gender Studies26.6 (2017): 688-701. Hawkins, Ralph K. "Book Review: What Really Happened in the Garden of Eden?." (2016): 206-208. Keil, Carl Friedrich, and Franz Delitzsch.Commentary on the Old Testament. Titus Books, 2014. McNeill, John J.The church and the homosexual. Beacon Press, 2015. Mechon-mamre.org. "1 Samuel 20 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre".Mechon-Mamre.Org, 2018, https://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt08a20.htm. Accessed 4 Apr 2018. Modise, Leepo, and Hannelie Wood. "The relevance of the metaphor of God as Father in a democratic, non-sexist and religious society: An African Christian perspective."Stellenbosch Theological Journal2.1 (2016): 285-304. References: Rita, Afroza Akter. "Assertion of Wearing Hijab in the Community: an Analysis."American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)29.1 (2017): 340-347. Ruether, Rosemary Radford. "Sexism and misogyny in the Christian tradition: Liberating alternatives."Buddhist-Christian Studies34.1 (2014): 83-94. Shaikh, Abdul Ghani. "WOMANS SOCIAL RIGHTS IN ISLAM: AN EVALUATION OF EQUALITY OF RIGHTS BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN."Grassroots49.1 (2015). Simons, Patricia. "Desire After Disaster: Lot and His Daughters."Disaster, Death and the Emotions in the Shadow of the Apocalypse, 14001700. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2016. 201-223. Willmington, Harold. "Leviticus at a Glance." (2017). Winer, Rebecca Lynn.Women, Wealth, and Community in Perpignan, c. 12501300: Christians, Jews, and Enslaved Muslims in a Medieval Mediterranean Town. Routledge, 2017. Wold, Benjamin. "Genesis 23 in Early Christian Tradition and 4QInstruction."Dead Sea Discoveries23.3 (2016): 329-346. Zevit, Ziony. "Was Eve Made from Adams Ribor His Baculum?."Biblical Archaeology Review41.5 (2015): 33-35. Zuhur, Sherifa. "Criminal law, women and sexuality in the Middle East."Deconstructing sexuality in the Middle East. Routledge, 2016. 29-52.
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Describe about advance diploma of business management in Dominos? Answer: Introduction: Dominos a very well known company in all over the world and is leading in pizza delivery and also in take away business. Its a quick server in the food and beverages industry. Dominos operates in 56 countries. Dominos tries to match themselves with the taste and flavor of the respective countries (Cornforth, Pioneering, E. V. O. L. U. T. I. O. N. 2014). Vision of Dominos Becoming the best operator in pizza delivery system with best workforce. Ranking number one in pizza. Ranking number one in people. Mission of Dominos The global chain of pizza delivery is being maintained with high standards and also providing the customer with excellent products and services. Best Pizzas are being served by extraordinary people. Have fun and sell more pizza. Values of Dominos Treat and respect people as you want to be treated. Produce the best product but in less quantity. Measure, control and share what is most important. The organization always goes for long term prospects. Look into the matters where there is need to change. Set the organizations limit high so that many things can be known. Promotion within the company. Objectives of Dominos SMART Analysis of Dominos To achieve the vision the company has to go through the SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time Bound) analysis. Without this vision it will be really difficult for the company to retain their position in the market (He, Zha, Li,2013). The first strategic objective of the company would be to effectively communicate the visions all the levels in the hierarchical structure of the management. Employees working in Dominos need to involve themselves in achieving the vision of the company. The clear vision of Dominos is to be in the number one position and this need to be communicated well to everyone. The other strategic objective is to achieve the vision a company needs to access them by achieving the objectives. Dominos is planning to open outlets in countries like Belgium, France etc by calculating the approximate number of customers and what will be there turnover in the coming 5 years. Another objective is to know that what the company is trying to obtain and is it easily achievable or not. Impractical goals take the company downwards instead of taking them towards their vision. The growth of the previous 5 years can easily suggest that whether the vision is really achievable or not. The strategic objective for an organization is to know their resources so that they can easily achieve for that they are aiming. The capital, human resources technologies and materials are the resources which makes the vision in real. Dominos has built in a required amount of capital and human resources from their business expansion and the IT department has become technologically updated. Lastly the strategic objective is to know time limit. So that the activities involved in this are done in a positive manner and 5 years is a reasonable time period for Dominos in the current market situation. External Environment Analysis Dominos operates in a free competition environment. There are many companies who are delivering the same products and services. So there is the competition for attracting the customers. There is competition regarding the raw materials, employee etc. To make their employees stay Dominos has offered different pay packages to them. Dominos treat their suppliers in the same way only. These steps taken by Dominos are crucial to stay in the market and dealing with their competitors (Chou, Ding, Chang, Wong, Lin, Wang, Chang, 2013). Internal Environment Analysis Dominos Pizza delivers their pizza in several countries. It had gained its status and it is an advantage for them for their upcoming outlets. Dominos monitor their stores and maintain the quality of their products. They easily understand their customer needs and act accordingly and satisfy them. In Dominos the employees works as team and try to achieve their targets keeping their standards intact (BaÃ urov Ponechal, 2013). SWOT Analysis of Dominos Pizza By SWOT analysis, the strength, opportunities, weakness and threats can be easily identified. The strength and weakness are the internal factors and opportunities and threats are the external factors (Salzano, Antonionib, Landuccic, Cozzanib, 2013). Strength and weakness helps an organization to analyze deficiencies and improve them where it is required. Opportunities and threats focus on the external condition i.e. their environmental conditions and analyze their competitors. Figure-1 SWOT Analysis In the figure it is seen that the organization Dominos Pizza has been divided into four quadrants. Dominos Pizza holds an important position in the food and beverages sector, so they can cope with any situations be it internally and externally and Dominos can take almost all the opportunities of the coming future and also can reduce their threats on their performances so that they can take action according to the competition of the markets. Dominos does not have any specific weakness but there is deficiency in target market of organic pizza because of its shortfall and it has become a issue in the recent days. Therefore, Dominos should mainly focus on less calorie food items and also in those food items which have low carbohydrates which will help in increase their sells (Groeneveld, Wesseler Berentsen, 2013). PEST Analysis Wherever Dominos open their outlets they keep the culture and taste in their mind of that country and place. PEST (Political, Economical, Social and Technological) analysis helps in understanding the political social scenario of the respective country where the new outlet will be opened (Strauss, 2010). Political Factors- For planning, the strategy in a definite market political factor plays an important role. The policies of the government play an important role in the organization growths according to their priorities and also by supporting in their business. The Union policies also regulate that what type of goods and services Dominos is providing and whether it will affect the health and safety of the customers or not. Economical Factors- In the organizations operational section the economic factors play an important role. The inflation, taxation affects in the operation of Dominos. Social Factor- Whether the products are being prepared within the proper range and giving proper services are seen under the socio cultural factors. The culture and lifestyle of Australia is totally different from the European market and it decides that whether the product is ready to be served in the market or not. Technological Factors- The development and usage of the technology of a particular market decides the marketing plan and develop their products accordingly. The technologies of Dominos are used worldwide and it is easily achievable (Sperandio, Robin, Girard, 2014). Competitor Analysis Both internationally and domestically Dominos has many competitors. Few of them are- Mc Donalds, Pizza Hut etc. McDonalds is worldwide famous in the food and beverages sector. Its brand image plays an important role specially its logo in the customers mind. But it has numerous legal issues (Salzano, Cozzani, 2012). Pizza Hut is another giant franchisee in pizza sector. It is mainly specialized in the making of pizza. Pizza Hut mainly focus on the health of the customers so they have launched different types of salads and pastas. Pizza Hut is the main competitor of Dominos (Villani, 2013). Strategic Action Table Strategies Actions Person Responsible Time Frame Communication with the hierarchical structure of the management Plans should be communicated so that the work is done accordingly. HR People. 3 months. Opening New Outlets in different Countries. To attract the customers of those countries and preparing the customer base. Marketing Manager. 6 months. Resources Used for achieving the vision The resources are used are really helpful for achieving the vision. HR and Finance Managers. 2-3 months. Engaging efficient employees Within the specific time limit the goals need to be achieved. All the employees in the organization 3 months. References BaÃ urov, S., Ponechal, R. (2013) The Comparative Analysis of External Walls in a Passive House with Respect to Environment and Energy.AMR,649, 258-261. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.649.258 Chou, C. C., Ding, J. F., Chang, T. M., Wong, C. P., Lin, W. C., Wang, C. 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