Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Cell-based Therapy For Myocardial Regeneration
Cell-based Therapy For Myocardial Regeneration ABSTRACT Myocardial infarction is one of the main cause of mortality in many countries. Therefore, an effective therapy for myocardial infarction is required. Reperfusion and other conventional therapy have been the mainstay therapy for myocardial infarction. However, many patients remain refractory to this therapy. Cell-based therapy is considered a novel therapy, in which stem cells are used for cardiac repair. Stem cells are potential therapeutic and promising option that could be the alternative solution for salvaging damaged cardiomyocyte. Based on current studies, stem cells are a promising therapeutic approach for myocardial infarction. However, some challenges need to be answered by future studies before this novel therapy can be widely applied. This essay provides an overview of the progress in stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction. INTRODUCTION The robust potential of stem cells were still a mystery, but today, we are constantly getting new information on this parti cular topic. One of the prospects of stem cell therapy is to treat damaged cardiomyocyte (Fischer, et.al, 2009; Beltrami, 2003).Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in many countries. Not only this disease causes a massive socio-economic burden, but also reduces the quality of live for patients who survive the attack (Hamm, 2016). Currently, one of the mainstay therapy for myocardial infarction is rapid revascularization to limit ischaemic damage. Reperfusion and other conventional therapy have undoubtedly saved so many lives, yet there are patients remained refractory to this therapy and left with no other treatment options. In addition to that, many patients who have underwent reperfusion strategy and survived, often left with significant impairment of left ventricular systolic function. One big question remain unanswered. Is there any other treatment option for these patients? Medical therapeutic approach to reduce damaged cardiomyocyte and generate new functioning muscle is the current unmeet need. Stem cells emerge as the novel procedure to restore damaged cardiomyocytes, and this procedure is popularly known as cellular cardiomyoplasty (Pendyala, et.al, 2008; Reinlib, 2000). Many preclinical and clinical trials have documented the potential use of stem cells to generate viable cardiomyocyte and improve cardiac function (Bergmann, et.al, 2009). To date, there are many different types of adult stem cells and progenitor cells used for this procedure, some of which are bone marrow derived stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and so on. Since the advance of stem cells technology is faster than ever before, this essay aimed to give an evidence based update on stem cells use for myocardial infarction, what we have achieved so far, and what does the future hold for this breakthrough. CELL-BASED THERAPY FOR MYOCARDIAL REGENERATION After an ischaemic attack due to occluded coronary vessels, heart muscle usually left damaged and nonfunctioning. However, recent evidence suggested that the cardiac muscle could actually undergo a limited amount of renewal. A prospect of inducing muscle cell to undergo division for cardiomyocyte replacement, or generating new muscle by stem cells are certainly intriguing (Roell, et.al, 2002; Santoso, et.al, 2011). Stem cells are capable to proliferate in the same state (self-renewal) and differentiate into multiple cell lineages. On the other hand, progenitor cells are more specific and have limited differentiation potential. Mechanism on how stem cells work are as follows: firstly, these stem cells need to be extracted from the source (eg. bone marrow), after that these stem cells need to be delivered to the injured area. These cells are implanted in the myocardium, and due to the nature of these cells, they would grow and differentiate/transdifferentiate into cardiomyocyte. To achieve the goal of cardiac repair, these cells should also have the ability to fuse with the surrounding tissues that their harmonious contraction increases the heart contraction. Furthermore, these newly-formed cardiomyocyte should also express the appropriate electromechanical properties required for contraction to yield a synchronous contraction (Templin, et.al, 2011; Makino, et.al, 1999).